Human egg fertilization marks the beginning of conception. It's when the egg or ovum is fertilized by sperm. After a sperm cell fuses with an egg cell, a new cell called a zygote is formed with the potential to develop into a new life.
First, the sperm is deposited inside the vagina from sexual intercourse. Other methods include; depositing inside the uterus by intrauterine insemination (IUI), or outside the body by invitro fertilization (IVF).
Sperm travel up through the cervix, the uterus, then up into the fallopian tube. It's here in the tubes that the sperm awaits for the release of an egg (ovulation) from the ovarian follicle from the ovary. It is also in the fallopian tube that fertilization takes place.
Fertile cervical mucus is necessary for the sperm to swim to its destination to the uterine tubes. Cervical fluids help them to be able to swim and help to nourish sperm while inside the body so they may survive long enough to fertilize an egg.
Sperm swim by whipping their tales and are programmed to move in an upward fashion. After an egg is released into the fallopian tube, it gives off a chemical that attracts sperm. The sperm are drawn to the egg and at this time become very active.
The moment of fertilization occurs when one sperm fuses with, or fertilizes, the ovum. Once one sperm has penetrated the outside layer, the egg cell develops a coating that prevents any other sperm from entering.
The head of the sperm produces enzymes that cut through the outer jelly coat of the egg. The sperm plasma then fuses with the egg’s plasma membrane. This starts the process of a new life. Cells begin to divide and multiply. The head of the sperm loses it's tail and the embryo travels down the fallopian tube and enters the uterus. This takes about a week.
Inside the uterus, implantation takes place. The embryo burrows into the endometrium, or lining of the uterus, where is will be nourished and grow throughout the stages of pregnancy.
Implantation marks a successful conception and you are now officially pregnant. Once implanted the embryo gives off a hormone signal called human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). This is the hormone that is detected by pregnancy tests. The hCG levels will be high enough to detect at about two weeks after ovulation.
Fertilization occurs within about 24 hours of ovulation at the beginning of the luteal phase. 24 hours is the usual life span of the ovum. That's why it is important to have intercourse in the days just before you ovulate.
Sperm should be waiting inside the fallopian tube when the egg is released to increase the odds of getting pregnant. The days just before ovulation are your most fertile days to conceive.
After fertilization, the corpus luteum takes over hormone production.
The very first symptom of fertilization may be a short, stabbing pain in your uterus. This is from the embryo implanting into the lining. This implantation may also cause some slight bleeding/spotting, usually of some brown blood.
Other early signs and symptoms are frequent urination. The embryo grows very quickly the first week and is already stretching your uterus and putting pressure on your bladder.
Another sign is your breast may get slightly bigger, firmer, and more sensitive. This is from the influx of hormones necessary for your continued pregnancy and preparing your breast to deliver milk at delivery.
One more sign of fertilization is a pronounced but very short dizzy spell. Also from the sudden rise of pregnancy hormones.
However, all woman are different and experience different human egg fertilization symptoms. You may not even experience any signs at all and still conceive. There's really no way to tell beforehand until you can take a pregnancy test around the time your period is due.
Fallopian Tube | Whan Does Ovulation Occur? | What Happens at Conception? | When Does Conception Occur? | Pregnancy Implantation | When Does Implantation Occur? | Two Week Wait | Getting Pregnant Positions | How Long to Get Pregnant |
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